Many Christians confuse these two very different experiences. Conviction comes from God through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Jesus said,

I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for hif I do not go away, ithe Helper will not come to you. But jif kI go, lI will send him to you. 8 mAnd when he comes, he will nconvict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment: 9 concerning sin, obecause they do not believe in me; 10 pconcerning righteousness, qbecause I go to the Father, and you will see me no longer; 11 rconcerning judgment, because the ruler of this world sis judged.
h ch. 7:39
i ch. 15:26; [ch. 14:16]
j [Acts 2:33]
k ch. 14:2
l See ch. 14:26
m [ch. 8:28]
n [ch. 8:46]
o ch. 8:24; [Acts 2:36, 37; 1 Cor. 12:3]
p [Acts 17:31]
q ver. 16, 17, 19
r See ch. 12:31
s [Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:14]
The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001 (Jn 16:7-11).

Conviction is a good thing. It exposes the sin in our hearts so that we can deal with it. It inspires and leads us to repentance and Godly change. It draws us to God to receive mercy in the time of need and grace for the ensuing battle with our carnal nature.

Condemnation can come from the Devil (the accuser of the brethren) and sometimes out of our own heart. The apostle Paul wrote,

8 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.1 2 For the law of hthe Spirit of life ihas set you2 free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death. 3 For jGod has done what the law, kweakened by the flesh, lcould not do. mBy sending his own Son nin the likeness of sinful flesh and ofor sin,3 he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that pthe righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, qwho walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 5 For rthose who live according to the flesh set their minds on sthe things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on tthe things of the Spirit. 6 To set uthe mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.
1 Some manuscripts add who walk not according to the flesh (but according to the Spirit)
h 1 Cor. 15:45; 2Cor. 3:6
i ver. 12; See ch. 6:14, 18; 7:4ff
2 Some manuscripts me
j Heb. 10:1, 2, 10, 14; See Acts 13:39
k Gal. 4:9; Heb. 7:18
l Heb. 10:6, 8
m 2 Cor. 5:21
n Phil. 2:7; See John 1:14
o Lev. 16:5; Heb. 10:6, 8; 13:11
3 Or and as a sin offering
p ch. 1:32; 2:26
q Gal. 5:16, 25
r [Gal. 6:8]
s Gal. 5:19-21
t Gal. 5:22, 23, 25
u ver. 13; [Col. 2:18]; See ch. 6:21
The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001 (Ro 8:1-6).

And John the apostle wrote,

20 for whenever our heart condemns us, God is greater than our heart, and he knows everything.
The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001 (1 Jn 3:20).

Condemnation will encourage you to give up. To quit. It has a ring of finality to it. Conviction on the other hand inspires us to pray and commune with God. To continue to war with our carnal nature.

31 What then shall we say to these things? pIf God is for us, who can be3 against us? 32 qHe who did not spare his own Son but rgave him up for us all, how will he not also with him graciously give us all things? 33 Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? sIt is God who justifies. 34 tWho is to condemn? Christ Jesus is the one who died—more than that, who was raised—uwho is at the right hand of God, vwho indeed is interceding for us.4 35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? 36 As it is written, w “ For your sake xwe are being killed all the day long; we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered.”
37 No, in all these things we are more than yconquerors through zhim who loved us. 38 For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, 39 nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
p Num. 14:9; 2 Kin. 6:16; Ps. 118:6; 1 John 4:4
3 Or who is
q John 3:16
r See ch. 4:25
s Isai. 50:8, 9; [Rev. 12:10, 11]
t ver. 1
u See Mark 16:19
v Heb. 7:25; 1 John 2:1; [ver. 27]
4 Or Is it Christ Jesus who died … for us?
w Cited from Ps. 44:22
x 1 Cor. 4:9; 15:30, 31; 2 Cor. 4:10, 11; See Acts 20:24ff
y 1 Cor. 15:57; See John 16:33
z Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:2; Rev. 1:5; 3:9
The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001 (Ro 8:31-39).

Grace and Peace,