How do I know if I have allergies, a cold, or a sinus infection?
It can be tough to tell sometimes. Unlike allergies, a cold or respiratory infection often brings on a fever, so that’s a key indicator. If your nasal congestion clears up within one to two weeks, chances are you had a cold rather than allergies. Seasonal allergy symptoms tend to last three weeks or more, depending on the types of pollen you’re allergic to. Lastly, differentiating between allergies, cold, and sinus infection is one of those times when you actually can consider mucus color. A thin, clear discharge generally points to allergies, while an opaque, yellow/green, or thick discharge usually indicates a cold. There’s a common misconception that yellow or green mucus signals a bacterial infection, but that’s not a reliable indicator. Other allergy symptoms include throat irritation, occasional wheezing, skin rash, fatigue, and frequent sneezing.
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I’ve had symptoms for three weeks without a fever, but my mucus has changed from clear to green. Should I see a doctor?
You should consult your health care provider whenever your allergy medications aren’t working, for a preventive visit before allergy season, or if you can’t tell whether allergies are causing your symptoms. Even if it turns out you don’t have a cold or sinus infection, your appointment will give you the opportunity to collaborate with your health care provider on a treatment plan for your nasal allergies.
Is it possible to prevent allergies?
You can’t prevent seasonal allergy symptoms from occurring, but you can do things to minimize the impact of the symptoms on your quality of life. Here are some steps I recommend you take before and during allergy season:
- Start a steroid nasal spray about four to six weeks ahead of pollen season.
- Stay indoors during peak pollen hours, such as mornings. On high-pollen days, stay indoors as much as possible.
- Do your seasonal cleaning before pollen’s in the air. You may still have to cope with dust allergies while cleaning, but at least you won’t have to deal with dust and pollen.
- Keep windows closed when pollen counts are high.
- Place air filters inside your air conditioning vents to prevent pollen from getting blown into your living space.
- Get a dehumidifier. These devices also filter the air in your home, which may help improve your indoor air quality.
- Remove outer garments outside and shake them off before bringing them indoors. Even though you may not be able to see pollen on your clothing, it’s there.
- Wash pollen down the drain by showering as soon as you get home. Pollen sticks to your hair and skin, so rinsing it off will help keep it out of your bed, carpet, and furniture.
What allergy medications do you recommend?
For most people, over-the-counter allergy medications are a good first-line defense. You might need to try different pills to find the one that works best for you. Use a non-sedating allergy pill for daytime, and diphenhydramine (Benadryl) at night as needed. If allergy pills alone aren’t working, consider trying Nasacort brand steroid nasal spray, which is now available over the counter. It’s the same strength as the original prescription Nasacort, and you should use it according to the package directions.
Note: It takes up to a week for Nasacort to reach maximum effectiveness, whereas pills work within half an hour. You can use both allergy pills and Nasacort at the same time for best effect.
Are allergy shots effective?
Here’s some good news for needle-phobes: Immunotherapy — the medical term for allergy shots — is now available in a sublingual form, which doesn’t involve needles. Instead, a drop of liquid that contains allergens is placed under your tongue, where it’s absorbed by your system. You still have to see a specialist and sit in the waiting room for a short period after receiving immunotherapy because of the very rare risk of a severe allergic reaction. For these reasons, I only recommend immunotherapy after pretty much all else has failed, or for people with severe symptoms.
Can neti pots help treat allergies?
I’m a fan of nasal saline irrigation. If you use a neti pot, be sure to use only distilled water and to clean and dry the pot thoroughly between uses. Although rare, there’s a risk of parasitic infection when using tap water in neti pots. And if you don’t dry the pot thoroughly, you’re inviting mold growth. It’s also fine to simply pick up a bottle of saline nasal irrigation at the drugstore. It’s sterile, and the bottle can be recycled. I’ve found saline irrigation works better for chronic allergies rather than seasonal, but it can’t hurt to try it.
Is there any way technology can help me manage my allergies?
Yes! Several pollen-forecasting apps are available for smartphones. Some of these apps can give a very precise pollen forecast for your location, so you can plan your activities accordingly. And if you like to exercise outdoors, it’s very helpful to have an hourly pollen forecast at hand.
I’ve tried everything, but I’m still miserable. Any suggestions?
Consider complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) solutions. I often recommend acupuncture for seasonal allergies, along with the herb stinging nettle in a tea or capsules. Keep in mind these work best as preventive options, so start well before allergy season. For more options, talk to your health care provider.
Seasonal allergies can be annoying to deal with, but you can minimize their impact through preventive measures, medication, and even immunotherapy. Don’t let pollen season get the best of you this year!
Looking for more information about allergies? Read All About Allergies.